Archives for May 2009
Born in Ada, Ohio, Rollo May introduced Heidegger’s existentialism to America. While he recovered from tuberculosis (just prior to receiving his Ph.D.), May read Kierkegaard and Freud, and ultimately wrote his dissertation of their views on anxiety. [Read more…] about Rollo May
Following Angell as head of the psychology department at the University of Chicago, Harvey A. Carr still used introspection but more behavioral in approach than many functionalists. Using introspection and observation, Carr studied thinking, emotion and adaptive behavior. He maintained that an “adaptive act” has 3 characteristics: a motivating stimulus, a sensory stimulus, and a response which adjusts life to meet the requirements set by the motivating stimulus. Thinking, then, is the substitution of ideas for motivating stimuli, and emotions are physiological readjustments to the environment.
The leading scientist of his time, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz measured the speed of a nerve impulse (a task previously thought to be impossible), revived Thomas Young’s theory of color vision, and showed that the ear’s basilar membrane vibrates sympathetically to stimulation. A student of Johannes Muller, Helmholtz also invented the ophthalmoscope (an instrument used to look into the eye and examine the retina).
Check out this video on Psychology and Experimental Physiology.
Although he studied psychiatry under Bleuler and Jung, Ludwig Binswanger is best known for his existential beliefs. One of the first psychoanalysts in Switzerland (and a personal friend of Freud), Binswanger combined Heidegger’s phenomenology with Freud’s psychoanalysis. [Read more…] about Ludwig Binswanger