Kurt Lewin

June 12, 2009

Like Koffka, Kurt Lewin studied with Stumpf. Although part of the general Gestalt movement, Lewin is best known for his field theory. Using geometry’s terms and Gestalt ideas, he held that people live in a psychological life space. [Read more]

Jean-Paul Sartre

June 12, 2009

Born in Paris, Jean-Paul Sartre’s philosophy is an unsystematic collection of plays and novels. Focusing attention of the meaning of existence, he concludes that there is no reason people should exist. But since they do exist, they should freely make their own decisions. Although Sartre stressed that decisions should be personal, unaided by religion, morality or society, he was active in the French Resistance during WWII. He believed that people should rebel against authority, and yet in his later years, Sartre moved from existentialism to social communism.

Clark Hull

June 11, 2009


Clark Leonard Hull had a tough childhood. In his late teens, an outbreak of typhoid fever took the lives of several of his classmates. Then, at the age of 24, Hull contracted polio, which precipitated his change from mining engineer to psychologist. [Read more]

Ewald Hering

June 8, 2009

Hering, Ewald (1834-1918)   A student of Weber and Fechner, Ewald Hering achieved early fame for discovering the Hering-Breuer reflex. Hering and Breuer showed that there are receptors in the lungs which help cause respiration. His studies on space perception were also exceedingly thorough. [Read more]

Edwin R. Guthrie

June 7, 2009

For almost 45 years, Edwin R. Guthrie was a major force in learning theory. Like Watson, Guthrie focused on observable behavior. Unlike Watson, Guthrie held that learning was a one-shot process of association. [Read more]

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