In contrast to Descartes’ separation of God, mind and matter, Baruch (Benedict in Latin) Spinoza proposed an integrated view. Not three separate entities; three aspects of one substance. Although raised in the predominantly Christian city of Amsterdam, and contrary to the teaching of his parents who were Portuguese Jews, Spinoza was basically a pantheist (God does not exist as a separate entity but is in everything). He believed that mind and body can’t be separated because matter and soul are the same thing but viewed from different points of view. Spinoza’s double-aspectism (mind-body are two sides of the same coin) was in contrast to the dualism of Descartes and others. Dualists held that the material mind and spiritual mind were independent but had to meet somewhere. Spinoza’s monism eliminated the conflict by reducing mind and matter to the same substance.
Spencer, Herbert (1820-1903)Born in working class Derby, England, Spencer was a working man. With no formal schooling, at age 17 he got a job on the railroad. Then, when he turned 28, he set off for London to become a journalist. After a stint as an assistant editor for The Economist, Spencer became a success working the freelance market. Spencer liked the idea of evolution. Basing his ideas on Lamarck, then on Darwin, he proposed evolution is an on-going process of differentiation. Life grows in complexity, and learning occurs by contiguity. For Spencer, when associations occur often enough, they can be passed on to the following generation. Like Bain, Spencer was a hedonist. They believed that pleasure increased the frequency of behavior. Known as the Spencer-Bain principle, it says that the probability of a given behavior occurring increases if it is followed by pleasure, and decreases if that behavior is followed by pain. In 1852, Spencer coined his best known phrase “survival of the fittest.” It was term Darwin later used himself.
Socrates (469-399 BC)Primarily known through Plato’s writings, Socrates is sometimes called the first social scientist because of his interest in ethics, economics, and aesthetics. He believed that thought came from the psyche (the spirit or soul of the individual). Tall, dark and handsome would not have described Socrates well. Short, dark and unattractive would have been closer. But his sharp mind, witty sense of humor, and unequaled speaking ability made him very popular. He preferred talking to writing, and spent much of his life in the marketplace of Athens. Socrates was more concerned with the nature of man than with the composition of matter. In 399 BC, Socrates was charged with interfering with the gods (a crime punishable by death). His continued reference to an inner voice was interpreted as demonic possession, and his teaching was thought to undermine the morals of Athen’s youth. Found guilty by a small majority, Socrates countered with an alternative sentence (as was customary). Instead of suggesting a serious alternative, however, Socrates offered to pay a small fine. They jury was not amused, and with increased majority sentenced him to die by lethal dosage of hemlock.
Small, Willard S (1870=1943) The fourth person to impact animal research was Willard .S. Small. In 1901, he invented the animal maze. It became the first practical way to systematically test animal responses, and has been widely used to study physiological and psychological issues (including motivation, learning, and memory).
Romanes, George John (1848-1894)George John Romanes (1848-1894) collected anecdotal material on the importance of animals. A friend of Charles Darwin, Romanes collected animal stories and attributed human characteristics to animals (anthropomorphism).
Reid, Thomas (1710-1796)Like Hartley, Thomas Reid was the son of a minister. Although Reid’s uncle was a personal friend of Newton, Reid was not an empiricist. Reid’s rationalism was a reaction against Hume and a defense of commonsense thinking. Hume questioned reality because it is experienced only through our senses; Reid pointed out that real people know and deal with reality all the time. Clearly the mind knows more than its own processes, and actively organizes sensations. Reid’s “faculty psychology” included six intellectual powers: perception, judgment, memory, conception, moral taste and will. People have the ability (faculty) to actively interact with the world around them. This interaction is direct, and requiers no specialized philosophy; it’s simply naive realism.