If you were designing an eye, here are some of your options. Overall, humans chose well.
To understand our visual systems, you need to know a bit about light. Here’s a quick introduction on the characteristics of light.
There are 4 basic principles of perceptual efficiency. Here’s a quick introduction to them.
Here’s some information on how our perception sensors help us understand reality. Everything we know is because of our built-in sensory processing systems can measure touch, chemicals, air waves, and light waves.