Harvey A. Carr
Following Angell as head of the psychology department at the University of Chicago, Harvey A. Carr still used introspection but more behavioral in approach than many functionalists. Using introspection and observation, Carr studied thinking, emotion and adaptive behavior. He maintained that an “adaptive act” has 3 characteristics: a motivating stimulus, a sensory stimulus, and a response which adjusts life to meet the requirements set by the motivating stimulus. Thinking, then, is the substitution of ideas for motivating stimuli, and emotions are physiological readjustments to the environment.