Oswald Kulpe

A student of Wundt, Oswald Kulpe is best known for “imageless thought.” In contrast to many of Wundt’s students (who believed that though without sensations or images was impossible), Kulpe maintained that thinking need not have images present. Emphasizing higher mental processes, Kulpe and his colleagues at Wurzburg (sometimes they are called the Wurzburg School) looked less at sensations and more at thinking.


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